|SECTION II LESSON 2.||
Development of civilization -------------------------------------------- 31
Mutual relationships ----------------------------------------------------- 32
Community relationships ----------------------------------------------- 33
Coordinated action. National relationships ---------------------------- 34
Articles of Confederation.
Interstate commerce. International relationships --------------------- 35
The State Department. Beneficial to person and property ----------- 36
Law: Uniform acceptance and observance.
Beneficial to production ------------------------------------------------- 37
Accumulation of capital.
Relations between management and men
Results in progress ------------------------------------------------------ 38
A Nation of specialists -------------------------------------------------- 39
Interdependence of capital, labor, and consumer -------------------- 40
The telephone Public utilities ------------------------------------------- 41
Business. Beneficial to peace ------------------------------------------- 42
Unselfishness. Cosmopolitan character of population---------------- 43
Full privileges of citizenship.
Immigrant not all problem. Our opportunity ------------------------- 44
31. Development of civilization. — Civilization had its beginning in the establishment of the family, then in the grouping of families, tribes, states, and nations.
Through these various stages there was developed a crude order of society based primarily upon the will of an outstanding individual with power to enforce that will by control of physical forces and the means of livelihood. Thus was established the basis of society, imperfect in its form, inadequate in its results, yet containing the essential elements for refinement and progress, viz, social intercourse, protection, and advantages.
32. Mutual relationships. — In the beginning, lacking means of communication and transportation and confining efforts principally to the production of mere necessities of life, individuals and groups lived largely independently of each other.
With increasing wants, the result of enlightened intellect, with increasing facilities in transportation and communication, with development of ability for invention and improvement, independence gave way to interdependence to such a degree that today the welfare of every individual is woven into the fabric of modern society.
33. Community relationships. — If you destroy the dam built by a colony of beavers, they set about its reconstruction, using the identical plan, method, and tools common to their species throughout all generations. Animal intelligence contains no quality that enables improvement beyond the inherited abilities or instincts of its kind. Herein lies the marked distinction between the highest type of animal and the lowest type of human intelligence.
Man possesses the ability to profit by the accomplishments of the past, to improve, and to develop. Upon this ability the development of past civilizations has depended. Upon this same ability the civilizations of the present and future are predicated. Out of this have grown community relationships established in ordered society upon the law of reason, supplanting the law of will, and ever increasing in its benefits to all, with the growing understanding of the rights and worth of the individual member of society.
Coordinated action. — Coordinated group action has strength in so far as its members work together for the attainment of a common purpose — the subordination of self for the good of all. Only by helping others can we help ourselves. "He profits most who serves best."
In the development of her strength, wealth, and accomplishments America is founded upon the establishment of successive communities bound together individually and collectively, by interdependent relationships created and coordinated in home, school, church, and local self-government, as expressed in town meetings in which each individual member contributed his part to that greatest of all forces by which the character of the people of our Nation is sustained and developed — public opinion.
34. National relationships. — In the development of our colonies the need of protection for person and property, of cooperation in the development of resources, of exchange of products and labor in the creation of comforts and wealth, of consolidated action in resisting oppression and establishing rights, created a national relationship binding communities and States in a federation designed for the welfare of all.
Articles of Confederation. — Under the Articles of Confederation, trade rivalries separated the new States from each other. There was an emphasis of State over National interests: One State lost its supply of cheap manufacturing material; industries suffered from want of coal, factories from lack of material, markets were limited; economic barriers were set up, no cooperation existed, exclusiveness prevailed.
Constitution. — Grown now to a union of 48 States, working in a spirit of harmony and cooperation, restricted yet greatly benefited by our Constitution and statutes, we have come to be in point of wealth, attainment, and influence one of the outstanding nations of the world.
Under our Constitution the departments of government are set up for the express purpose of coordination and cooperation for the general welfare of the Nation.
Interstate commerce. — Notwithstanding the sovereignty of each of the States composing our Union, great freedom is enjoyed as to residence, travel, trade, and property rights among their citizens which has developed an interstate commerce of tremendous volume and worth.
Commerce among the States embraces navigation, intercourse, communication, travel, the transit of persons, transmission of messages by telegraph. — Justice Harlan.
Railways, air transports, postal service, telephones, telegraph, radiograms, help to unite the Nation by an exchange of goods or information, so that each citizen may know and profit by what the others are doing.
The Interstate Commerce Commission contributes to the development of "a more perfect union," which is an active association for cooperative effort. This commission touches the various interests of all of the people. Its benefits of regulations are in the interest of public necessities. It provides for a quick settlement of labor disputes affecting interstate trade and transportation, the control of which is lodged in the Federal Government.
35. International relationships. — In the development of those international relations which are in accord with the principles of interdependence, each nation must assume a larger responsibility and take a more active part in world affairs.
Due to the remarkable progress of civilization, isolation is no longer possible. International problems developing from ever-changing economic and political conditions demand consideration and application of the principles of interdependent relationships as the means of securing the general welfare of mankind.
I demand that the Nation do its duty and accept the responsibility that must go with greatness. — Roosevelt.
The State Department. — The State Department is the "friendly relations department" of our Government; by treaties and diplomatic negotiations beneficent relationships with foreign counties are secured and insured, establishing a spirit of accord and amity without which it would not be possible to carry on our part in world affairs to the good of all concerned.
36. Beneficial to person and property. — The efficacy of our Constitution lies in the fact that it contains a statement of fundamental purposes relating to human associations and plan for their accomplishment, susceptible of such interpretation as to make them applicable to changing conditions.
Among the purposes set forth in the Preamble to the Constitution are "domestic tranquillity" and "general welfare." The accomplishment of these purposes is based upon observance of the principles of interdependent relationships.
Law: Uniform acceptance and observance. — The security of persons and property is one of the inherent rights of mankind. It is guarded and guided by statutory laws, uniform in their restrictions and benefits, so that every citizen is fully protected in his rights.
Uniform laws are valuable in their benefits in proportion to uniform acceptance and observance. May a man have complete personal liberty? May a man do as he pleases? He may provided he is not a member of organized society. To attempt such action as a citizen constitutes him an outlaw in such ratio as his independence interferes with the rights of others and breaks down the structure of government. All crime is, ignorantly or wilfully, a violation of the principle of interdependent relationships.
Experience has revealed the necessity for united action to assure the greatest protection to the individual. Neither in person nor property will the individual find security without the assistance of his neighbor, community, State, and Nation. The higher the value we place upon human life and welfare, and the greater our accumulation of property, the more we must rely upon interdependent relationships based upon justice and inspired by mutual confidence and reciprocal endeavor.
37. Beneficial to production. — Industry is essentially the subjection of natural forces — the manipulation of natural material to the uses of mankind; it brings into action the worker, the engineer, the inventor, the organizer, the administrator, the combined energies of whom are liberated and set in motion by finance.
Accumulation of capital. — Thrift is the foundation stone of effective economic interdependence. The individual must practice frugality, engage in hard work, and acquire the habit of wise spending — so living within his means as to enable a saving of a portion of the product of his labor.
In industry wealth is the product of saving; it is secured in part by the elimination of waste and the corresponding conservation of materials and labor practiced by both individuals and groups, and saving or the accumulation of capital is as much the duty of the employee as of the employer.
Relations between management and men. — To derive the greatest value from interdependent relationship between employer and employee there must be created a spirit of good will and cooperation in which there is a recognition of mutual worth and mutual responsibility.
The atmosphere surrounding the relationship between management and men must eliminate fear, apprehension, and uncertainty. Only by the establishment of mutual understanding, confidence, and respect can effective cooperation and teamwork be secured. That employee renders best service who has an intelligent understanding of the relation of his part to the whole.
38. Results in progress. — Bound together by the ties of common interest and mutual benefits, Society has advanced from the crude hieroglyphic to the printed page. The smoke signal of the Indian to the radio. The tallow candle to the electric light. The hollowed log canoe to the Leviathan. The ox-drawn prairie schooner to the airplane.
39. A Nation of specialists. — We are a Nation of specialists because experience has taught us that greater benefits will accrue to one and all through each individual learning to do one thing well.
The physician looks after our health. The teacher gives instruction. The farmer grows the grain. The lawyer attends to legal matters.
Others specialize in providing all the comforts and conveniences of home.
No one citizen builds his own house, manufactures the plumbing equipment, generates the electricity, constructs the heating plant, or provides the fuel for its operation. He does not pave the street, put in his own waterworks, provide police and fire protection, establish his own school, church, hospital, or theater.
40. Interdependence of capital, labor, and consumer. — Individual necessities, comforts, and conveniences as now enjoyed are the product of accumulated capital and labor, represented in modern organization, transportation, great factories, distant farms, tropical plantations, the trappers of the frozen northlands, tho fishermen of the seas, and delivered daily to our homes by an army of tradesmen who administer, to our wants and are in turn dependent upon us for their livelihood.
The telephone. — No better illustration of interdependence can be found than in the story of that all-necessary convenience, the telephone) It is difficult to imagine the diversified labor, the problems of transportation, the world-wide accumulation of materials, and the tremendous outlay of capital required in the manufacture of this marvelous instrument which receives and transmits the human voice regardless of distance.
Men toiling in the mica mines of India, in the platinum fields of the Ural Mountains, in the forests and jungles of far-off Asia, Africa, and South America, in the great forests of the Northwest, in the iron, copper, and lead mines, and the great steel works of the United States, produce the materials that go into the making of your telephone and the exchange controls.
The following raw materials, gathered literally from the four corners of the world, are used: Platinum, gold, silver, copper, zinc, iron, steel, tin, lead, aluminum, nickel, brass, rubber, mica, silk, cotton, asphalt, shellac, paper, carbon.
With the assembling of raw materials, and their fabrication in great factories into the completed instrument, there is added the work of organization and administration required in obtaining capital, franchises, building lines and conduits, installation of switchboards, and training personnel. Your telephone call to all points of the compass is made possible by these materials and the labor of nearly 1,400,000 employees in the United States alone.
41, Public utilities. — Public utilities corporations build great hydroelectric plants in one State for distribution of power to many. Coal, copper, iron ore are mined and transported to places of greatest advantage to industry. Railroad, telegraph, and telephone companies invest billions of dollars in properties and conduct their affairs to the benefit and profit of the Nation. Great dams are constructed and the desert lands of many States made fruitful by the vast irrigation systems treated. Capital is consolidated and labor employed, farms enriched, cities builded, and our citizens bound together in one cooperative, prosperous, happy union by the magic power of interdependent relationships.
Business. — Business, to insure success, must keep in closest touch with the ever changing affairs of social, economic, and political conditions. Vast sums of money are spent on new products, improved equipment, research laboratories, inventions, in creating new appetites and new markets.
42. Beneficial to peace. — In America a degree of independence is developed out of which is born the idea in the minds of many that a citizen of the United States may be a law unto himself, retaining, however, the disposition to regulate the other fellow. If he does not like the law he seeks a way to evade it, at the same time shouting vociferously over the increase of crime and the lessened influence of our courts. He demands the highest wages obtainable and complains at the prices he must pay for the product of his fellow laborer. He insists upon his right to independence and liberty, yet is ever ready to restrict such action on the part of others. That citizen who has not developed the spirit of cooperation, understanding and tolerance is at war with his fellow man.
The unity of good men is a basis on which the security of our internal peace and the establishment of our Government may safely rest. It will always prove an adequate rampart against the vicious and disorderly. — Washington.
Unselfishness. — Every American citizen must guard against the spirit of selfishness, the inordinate desire for material gain, the temptation to live beyond his means, and the tendency to find the easiest way to obtain the most in satisfying his constantly increasing wants.
Honesty — individual and collective, national and international — inspiring confidence wherein there is neither room for trickery nor unfair practices is the basis of the principle of interdependent relationships. Such honesty rests not so much upon legal rights as upon the Golden Rule.
43. Cosmopolitan character of population. — The United States in her philosophy of self-determination emphasizes the ideas and ideals of human rights and human associations. In the fulfillment of this policy she opened wide her gates to the peoples of the earth, inviting them to share with her the blessings of liberty.
Somewhat less than half the racial stock of America's 108,000,000 white inhabitants are of British blood. Of the 95,000,000 whites, in 1920, 14,000,000 were born in foreign countries and 23,000,000 were of foreign or mixed parentage. There are 1,672.000 Germans, 1,600,000 Italians, 1,250,000 Russians, 500,000 Czechoslovakians, 465,000 Austrians, 370,000 Hungarians. There are 1,500,000 foreign born over 10 years of age unable to speak the English language. This foreign population supports over 1,000 newspapers published in 30 different languages.
There are no more untapped racial reserves.
Full privileges of citizenship. — The immigrant to America is particularly favored under the laws of the United States. Before the native-born youth can exercise the right of franchise he must live under the influence of our system of Government, acquire his education, and enlarge it through associations and experience for a period of 21 years from his birth to his majority. It is possible for the immigrant (18 years or over), subject to certain restrictions to issuance of first papers, with little education, without that knowledge of our Government, association and experience, obtained only through years of residence, to have granted to him the full privileges of citizenship five years after his arrival.
Resultant duties. — In return for the opportunities and privileges established through her own sacrifices and paid for with the enormous exactions of treasure and human life, she expects — and has the right to demand that those who accept her hospitality shall respect her principles — that those who elect to live in the security and comfort of her homes and institutions shall give due honor and award full allegiance to her Constitution and shall in no instance, either by choice or through ignorant acquiescence, seek to despoil the land in which were bred freedom, equality, and opportunity.
The cosmopolitan character of the population of America emphasizes the burden which rests upon every citizen to become fully informed in the underlying principles and ideals of our republican form of Government.
Class consciousness. — Class consciousness and class activity is the result largely of the intrusion of ideas of government entirely outside of the fixed principles set forth in our Constitution and should be no more tolerated in our country than we would expect our principles, if introduced by expatriated Americans, to be accepted by another nation.
Immigrant not all problem. — The immigrant is not all problem. He has been one of the outstanding assets in the development of America. Slowly, but surely, there is being assimilated and amalgamated in this country the bloods of practically all nations, in the development of a racial stock of exceptional worth in 'its vigor, ability, and character.
44. Our opportunity. — One of our greatest problems is the education, assimilation, and amalgamation of these various and numerous foreign groups into an understanding, harmonious, loyal, and upstanding American citizenship.
To this and succeeding generations is given the opportunity to develop from our homogeneous character an outstanding race expressive of the highest principles, ideals, and traditions to which a God-loving, humanity-loving, liberty-loving people can aspire. To accomplish this great work there must be a composition of all differences which tend to create class consciousness and class hatreds. Tolerance, born of knowledge, understanding, respect, sympathy, and harmony, engendered by the spirit of a common cause and purpose, are essential in the interpretation of the principles of interdependent relationships.