Section 1 - Social




Definition of citizenship ------------------------------------------------ 21

Origin of citizenship ---------------------------------------------------- 22

Source of American citizenship ---------------------------------------- 23

Acquisition of American citizenship ----------------------------------- 24


Immigration and naturalization.

No dual allegiance-------------------------------------------------------- 25

Dual citizenship ---------------------------------------------------------- 26

Right of suffrage---------------------------------------------------------- 27

Guaranties as to person and property ---------------------------------- 28

Obligations of citizenship ----------------------------------------------- 29

I am an American -------------------------------------------------------- 30

21. Definition of citizenship. — Citizenship is that membership in a nation which includes full civil and political rights, subject to such limitations as may be imposed by the government thereof.

22. Origin of citizenship. — Citizenship as we understand it today is the result of centuries of social, economic, and political experiments, in which improvement in human relations has slowly developed the idea of the benefits of governmental rules and restrictions for the protection of the rights of persons and property.

Ancient Greece was composed of a number of city states, each one independent of the other and conferring certain privileges upon its subjects. The greatest advantages of citizenship among these city states was conferred by the Athenians, limited, however, to native sons of native fathers and mothers, excluding from such privileges foreigners and slaves. The Athenian idea of citizenship was philosophical rather than practical.

It was left to the Romans, in succeeding centuries, to develop the more practical phases of citizenship, i.e., safety of the Republic, public service, stern simplicity, devotion to duty.

Above all other duties and obligations was placed that of unselfish duty to the state. It was this Roman virtue of loyalty to public duty, this devotion on the part of the citizen to the interest of the state, that, more than any other quality of the Roman character, helped to make Rome great.

Roman citizenship was confined to a privileged class, native or adopted. In the Anglo-Saxon races there was slowly developed the idea and ideals of self-government and of individual worth, in contrast with the earlier Greek and Roman domination of the state over the individual.

Out of these experiments in government and human relations there has been evolved the ideals and principles of American citizenship.

23. Source of American citizenship. — The source of American citizenship is found in the Constitution and subsequent Federal enactments.

24. Acquisition of American citizenship. — American citizenship is acquired in two ways:

By birth.

By naturalization.

Birth. — For 150 years following the first settlement of the American Colonies their inhabitants were citizens and subjects of a foreign power.

With the successful conclusion of tho Revolutionary War, terminating with the treaty of peace, 1783, all persons born in the United States before the Declaration of Independence could be regarded as American citizens.

By the civil rights act of 1866 it was provided that —

All persons born in the United States and not subject to any foreign power, excluding Indians not taxed, are declared to be citizens of the United States.

By the fourteenth amendment to the Constitution —

All persons born or naturalized in the United States and subject to the jurisdiction thereof are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside.

It has been decided by the Supreme Court of the United States that the children of domiciled aliens born in the United States are citizens under the fourteenth amendment. This is also true of the children of alien parents ineligible to citizenship through naturalization.

Immigration and naturalization. — Under the Constitution, Congress is given the power over both immigration and naturalization. In order to determine their fitness to enter the United States, each immigrant, on his arrival, is subjected to a physical and mental examination by officers of the Public Health Service. Under the immigration act the following classes of persons are excluded from entering the United States:

Idiots. Insane. Epileptics.

Paupers and persons likely to become a public charge. Professional beggars.

Persons suffering from tuberculosis or other dangerous or loathsome contagious diseases.

Persons physically or mentally so defective as to be unable to making a living.

Persons convicted of a crime or misdemeanor involving moral turpitude, Polygamists. Anarchists.

Women or girls imported for immoral purposes and persons aiding in their importation.

Contract laborers — that is, those induced to migrate by offers or promise of employment or by agreement, except artists and professional men.

Children under 16 years of age unaccompanied by their parents.

With certain exceptions no alien ineligible to citizenship is admissible to the United States.

All aliens brought into the country in violation of the law are, if possible, immediately sent back to the country whence they came on the vessel bringing them, at the expense of the vessel owners.

There is also a heavy fine upon the transportation company or vessel owner for unlawfully introducing immigrants into the United States

Because of the great influx of nonassimilable people, which tended to lower American standards of living, and to better develop a homogenous body politic, Congress, in 1923, passed the immigration restriction act.

The abnormal immigration to America is shown in the census returns of 1900, 1910, and 1920, as follows:

1900 --------------------------------------------------------------- 3,687,564

1910 --------------------------------------------------------------- 8,795,386

1920 --------------------------------------------------------------- 5,735,811

The law governing immigration provides that the annual quota from each country until July 1, 1927, is 2 per cent of the number of foreign-born persons of such nationality resident in continental United States as shown by the 1890 census, but the minimum quota of any nationality shall be 100.

The quota for each fiscal year thereafter will be based on a total immigration of 150,000.

The annual quota of any nationality for the fiscal year beginning July 1, 1927, and for each fiscal year thereafter, shall be a number which bears the same ratio to 150,000 as the number of inhabitants in continental United States in 1920 having that national origin (ascertained as hereinafter provided in this section) bears to the number of inhabitants in continental United States in 1920, but the minimum quota of any nationality shall be 100. — Immigration laws, 1927.

Under the Articles of Confederation the power of naturalization was in the States, thereby creating confusion through the lack of uniformity in conferring citizenship.

The authority for naturalization is to be found in the Constitution and Federal laws.

The Constitution has accordingly, with great propriety * * * authorized the General Government to establish a uniform rule of naturalization throughout the United States. — Madison.

Constitution, Article I, Sect. 8, Para. 4; Fourteenth Amendment.

Naturalization Laws.

Under the Constitution two methods of naturalization have grown up:

(1) By the general act of Congress conferring citizenship upon a whole class of persons, such as tribes of Indians, and the inhabitants of a new territory, like Hawaii, acquired by the United States.

(2) The general and more usual method is prescribed by the Revised Statutes, which requires the fulfillment of certain conditions before final admission into citizenship.

R. S. 3S1. Oath renouncing foreign allegiance and to support constitution and laws. — He shall, before he is admitted to citizenship, declare on oath in open court that he will support the Constitution of the United States, and that he absolutely and entirely renounces and abjures all allegiance and fidelity to any foreign prince, potentate, State, or sovereignty, and particularly by name to the prince, potentate, State, or sovereignty of which he was before a citizen or subject; that he will support and defend the Constitution and laws of the United States against all enemies, foreign and domestic, and bear true faith and allegiance to the same. — June 29, 1906, ch. 3592, sec. 4. 34 Stat. 596.

R. S. 382. Evidence of residence, character, and attachments to principles of Constitution; evidence of witnesses. — It shall be made to appear to the satisfaction of the court admitting any alien to citizenship that immediately preceding the date of his application he has resided continuously within the United States, five years at least, and within the State or Territory where such court is at the time held one year at least, and that during that time he has behaved as a man of good moral character, attached to the principles of the Constitution of the United States, and well disposed to the good order and happiness of the same. In addition to the oath of the applicant, the testimony of at least two witnesses, citizens of the United States, as to the facts of residence, moral character, and attachment to the principles of the Constitution shall be required, and the name, place of residence, and occupation of each witness shall be set forth in the record. — June 29, 1906, ch. 3592, sec. 4, 34 Stat. 596.

25. No dual allegiance. — Every alien should become a citizen in order that he may vote and hold office, and in all ways take an active part in developing, building and maintaining the Government — national and local — that protects him.

There can be no divided allegiance here. Any man who says he is an American, but something else also, isn't an American at all. We have room for but one flag, the American flag, and this excludes the red flag, which symbolizes all wars against liberty and civilization, just as much as it excludes any foreign flag of a nation to which we are hostile.

We have room for one sole loyalty and that is loyalty to the American people. — Roosevelt.

26. Dual citizenship. — The Supreme Court declares that there are two kinds of citizenship, State and National.

Citizens of the United States residing in any State enjoy the rights of both State and United States citizenship.

In the protection thereof we look to the National Government if the source of such rights lies in the Constitution and laws of the United States; and to the State government if such rights are based upon the constitution and laws of the State.

Dual citizenship does not imply a divided allegiance. While a State commands allegiance of its citizens the paramount allegiance is to the Union.

Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable. — Webster.

27. Right of suffrage. — Under the Constitution, the National Government confers American citizenship, but it is left to the States to determine who may vote at both its own and national elections. — Constitution, Article I, section 8, paragraph 4; fourteenth and fifteenth amendments.

In America public opinion is the ultimate force of Government. It is the expression of the mind and conscience of the whole Nation, without respect to sectional or partisan alliances.

Under the Constitution, voting is the only means provided for the expression of public opinion — it is the exercise of the will of the citizen in the protection of his rights.

28. Guaranties as to person and property. — The United States is composed of 48 sovereign States, each State having its individual constitution and laws. Yet no State may discriminate against the rights and privileges of the citizen of any other State as to person or property. Among these guaranties are —

Opportunity for education and individual improvement.

Unrestricted possession of property.

Joint rights to interstate commerce, communication, and transportation. Public utilities.

Freedom of residence and choice of occupation.

Care or protection on the high seas or abroad through passport privileges and international law.

29. Obligations of citizenship. — Active citizenship is gained only by becoming an enfranchised citizen of a State. This carries with it the obligation of a clear understanding of the principles of government and the courage to demand that these principles be not abridged.

Andrew Jackson said that every good citizen makes his country's honor his own. and not only cherishes it as precious, but sacred.

Lincoln declared: "I must stand by anybody that stands right; stand with him while he is right; and part with him when he is wrong."

It is essential that the individual citizen exercise his right of franchise — vote — as his paramount duty at all elections.

Uphold the Constitution as the one assurance of the security and perpetuation of the free institutions of America.

Practice self-government to assure good government for all.

Respect the rights of others, to assure the enjoyment of his own.

Contribute to the maintenance of his Government by the payment of taxes.

Obey the law as the first essential to law enforcement. Place service to country above service to self. Conform his conduct to the best interests of society. The opportunities and privileges of the American citizen are limited only by his individual ability, his personal habits, and conformity to necessary legal regulations. It is your obligation to exercise —

Care in your choice of occupation. Diligence in preparation for your task. Thrift to insure advancement and prosperity. Judgment in selection of companions. Integrity, honor, initiative, self-reliance, self-control.

30. I am an American. — "I am an American" is a challenge to the highest ideals and aspirations of mankind; to self-sacrifice and devotion: to loyalty and patriotism; to joyful work and courageous achievement; to magnanimity and charity to all and malice to none; as we seek to uphold and perpetuate the principles of our great Republic.

I live an American; I shall die an American; and I intend to perform the duties incumbent upon me in that character to the end of my career. I mean to do this with absolute disregard of personal consequences. What are the personal consequences? What is the individual man, with all the good or evil which may betide him, in comparison with the good or evil which may befall a great country, and in the midst of great transactions which concern that country's fate? Let the consequences be what they will. I am careless No man can suffer too much, no man fall too soon, if he suffer, or if he fall ill the defense of the liberties and Constitution of his country — Daniel Webster.

In the days of the Caesars "I am a Roman citizen" was a proud exultant declaration. It was protection. It was more — it was honor and glory. Twenty centuries of advancing civilization have given to the declaration "I am an American" a higher and nobler place. It stands today in the forefront of earthly titles. It proclaims a sharing in the greatest opportunities. It is a trumpet call to the highest fidelity. It is the diploma of the world, the highest which humanity has to bestow — Judge Brewer of the Supreme Court.